Kontrolrum for cyberoperationer.

Foto: Ukendt


This course provides officers who will serve in higher command staffs with an understanding of cyberspace as a domain for military operations. The purpose is to enable them to give relevant and timely guidance on the use of cyberspace and development of the Danish armed forces’ ability to fight in, through and by cyberspace.


Entry Requirements

The target audience for this module is officers from the armed forces at the level of NATO OF-2 (captain) and OF-3 (major).


Students enrolled in the Master of Military Studies (MMS) program have priority (tier 1 audience). Other employees within the Danish armed forces or other Danish governmental institutions will be accepted for participation as tier 2.


Civilian and military personnel from NATO and partner nations will be accepted for participation as tier 3.


Applicants must at least have completed an education at level 6 (e.g. bachelor degree) and be familiar with academic methodology prior to course start.


The course is taught in English. Participants must have good English skills (NATO 3-3-3-3 iaw. ATrainP-5).


The course is taught at the unclassified level. No security clearance is required for attendance.


Learning outcomes

Officers graduating from this course can critically discuss the relevance of cyberspace for military operations and advice on needed changes to existing technologies, doctrines and organisational setups.


After graduation, the officer has the knowledge, skills and competences stated below.



  • On a theoretical basis, the officer can:Refer to the political, strategic and psychological basis for cyberspace operations (CO).
  • Discuss definitions and concepts related to military cyberspace operations and international cyber politics more broadly.
  • Account for the Danish approach to cyber security and cyber military operations.Discuss the relevance of legal norms for CO.
  • Discuss the laws governing the use of force in cyberspace.
  • Account for the characteristics of cyberspace as an operational environment.
  • Discuss the nexus between mission assurance and armed forces’ reliance on computers and networks, both in the context of national operations and in alliance settings.
  • Explain the relevance of CO for attaining strategic and operational ends.
  • Discuss the political and strategic risks and benefit of responding to and deploying military CO.
  • Compare and critique how different actors approach the threats from cyberspace and how they are organised and fight in the domain.



  • Differentiate between various types of actions and actors in cyberspace.Use correct terminology related to CO.
  • Argue from relevant foundations such as deterrence theory, the security dilemma, the attribution problem, international law, norms theory, and the Danish joint doctrine for military cyberspace operations.
  • Extract lessons to be learned from recent cyber incidents.
  • Advice on cyberspace related issues to a non-technical and non-cyber savvy audience verbally and in writing.



Officers graduating from this course can independently and in collaboration with others:

  • See the differences between various types of actions in cyberspace.
  • See the relevance of CO for attaining strategic and operational ends.
  • Develop guidance on how to best fight in, through and by cyberspace.
  • Understand the political and strategic context surrounding cyberspace operations.



  • Definitions and terminology.
  • Cyberspace as an operational environment.
  • Actors in cyberspace.CO, strategy and international politics.
  • CO and military theory.
  • Laws and norms relevant to CO.
  • Cyberspace and military operations.
  • The psychology of cyberspace attack and defense.


Learning activities

The course is organised as a blend of distance-learning and on-campus learning activities.


Internet access is required. Wifi is provided by the Royal Danish Defence College on-campus.


On average, participants shall expect to use:6 hours weekly throughout the course on reading mandatory material and7 hours weekly on online learning activities (etivities) (only in distance learning periods).It is advisable to schedule this workload to deconflict with other activities.



The course spans a period of 11 weeks.


Date of access to the course e-learning platform: TBD.

Note that access to the course site will expire after six years.


Course start: 15 February 2021.

Course end (exam hand-in): 3 May 2021.
On-campus periods: 22 April to 26 April 2021.



Take-home assignment with approximately 14 days to write an eight page paper.

The paper is graded using the Danish 7-point scale (ECTS-scale).

An external examiner is appointed.



Dress code during on-campus activities: Battle dress uniform (DNK “MTS”). Civilians wear casual attire.


Related courses

Cyberspace Operations Officer and Liaison (COOL).

SAP ID: D-object not yet created. Contact Lt. Cdr. Henrik Palbo, fak-imt-07, for information.


Cyber – Executive Development Graduate Experience (C-EDGE)

SAP ID: D-object 04042038


International Cyber Education (ICE).

SAP ID: D-object 04042035.


TGR 900 – IT Sikkerhedsbrugerkursus.

SAP ID: D-object 03195703.


Course Organiser

CIV Jeppe T. Jacobsen

Institute for Military Technology

Royal Danish Defence College

Fiin: FAK-IMT-06

E-mail: jaja@fak.dk

Phone: +45 40 10 14 34


Study Supervisor 

Cdr. Claus Smith Rasmussen

Royal Danish Defense College


E-mail: clra@fak.dk

Phone: +45 72 81 70 62


Programme Office

Diana N. Chabert-Jørgensen

Phone: +45 72 81 70 83

Mail: dncj@fak.dk


25 August 2020

Military officers at NATO OF-2 (DNK M321) and NATO OF-3 (DNK M331) level, or an equivalent civilian level

Minimum 12
Maximum 24

Level 7 (Master) cf. qualification framework for lifelong learning


11 weeks part-time 

Online: 15/2-19/3 + 29/3-19/4

Presence: 22/3-26/3

Exam: 19/4-3/5

For MMS-students: Via the Event Management System

Others: Send your application through the advertisement on www.fak.dk

6. December 2020

Employees under the Ministry of Defence: Free.

Others: 5.000 DKK.

Royal Danish Defence College, Svanemoellen Barracks, Ryvangs Allé 1, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE



Sidst opdateret 10. marts, 2021 - Kl. 09.50