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Cyberspace Operations and Cyber War


Cyberspace Operations and Cyber War 

Cyberspace Operations and Cyber War 

This course contributes to developing and sustaining the ability of the Danish armed forces to fight in, through and by cyberspace.

Organizational impact
This course contributes to developing and sustaining the ability of the Danish armed forces to fight in, through and by cyberspace.

This course provides officers who will serve in higher command staffs with an understanding of cyberspace as a domain for military operations. The purpose is to enable them to give relevant and timely guidance on the use of cyberspace and development of the Danish armed forces’ ability to fight in, through and by cyberspace.

Entry Requirements
The target audience for this module is officers from the armed forces at the level of NATO OF-2 (captain) and OF-3 (major).

Students enrolled in the Master of Military Studies (MMS) program have priority (tier 1 audience). Other employees within the Danish armed forces or other Danish governmental institutions will be accepted for participation as tier 2.

Civilian and military personnel from NATO and partner nations will be accepted for participation as tier 3.

Applicants must at least have completed an education at level 6 (e.g. bachelor degree) and be familiar with academic methodology prior to course start.

The course is taught in English. Participants must have good English skills (NATO 3-3-3-3 iaw.  ATrainP-5).

The course is taught at the unclassified level. No security clearance is required for attendance.

Learning outcomes
Officers graduating from this course can critically discuss the relevance of cyberspace for military operations and advice on needed changes to existing technologies, doctrines and organisational setups.
After graduation, the officer has the knowledge, skills and competences stated below.

On a theoretical basis, the officer can:
• Refer to the political, strategic and psychological basis for cyber security.
• Seek guidance in influence theory and the psychology behind social engineering.

• Discuss definitions and concepts related to military cyberspace operations and international cyber politics more broadly.
• Account for the Danish approach to cyber security and cyber military operations.
• Discuss the relevance of moral and legal norms for CO.
• Discuss the laws governing the use of force in cyberspace.
• Account for the characteristics of cyberspace as an operational environment.
• Discuss the nexus between mission assurance and armed forces’ reliance on computers and networks, both in the context of national operations and in alliance settings.

• Explain the relevance of cyberspace operations for attaining strategic and operational ends.
• Discuss the political and strategic risks and benefit of responding to and deploying military cyberspace operations.
• Compare and critique how different actors approach the threats from cyberspace and how they are organised and fight in the domain.

• Differentiate between various types of actions and actors in cyberspace.
• Use correct terminology related to CO.
• Argue from relevant foundations such as deterrence theory, the security dilemma or the attribution problem.

• Extract lessons to be learned from recent cyber incidents.
• Advice on cyberspace related issues to a non-technical and non-cyber savvy audience verbally and in writing.

Officers graduating from this course can independently and in collaboration with others:
• See the differences between various types of actions in cyberspace.
• See the relevance of cyberspace operations for attaining strategic and operational ends.
• Develop guidance on how to best fight in, through and by cyberspace.
• Understand the political and strategic context surrounding cyberspace operations.

• Definitions and terminology.
• Cyberspace as an operational environment.
• Actors in cyberspace.
• Cyber security in the state.
• CO, strategy and international politics.
• CO and military theory.
• Laws and norms relevant to CO.
• Cyberspace and military operations.
• The psychology of cyberspace attack and defense.

Learning activities
The course is organised as a blend of distance-learning and on-campus learning activities.

Internet access is required. Wifi is provided by the Royal Danish Defence College on-campus.

On average, participants shall expect to use:
• 6 hours weekly throughout the course on reading mandatory material and
• 7 hours weekly on online learning activities (etivities) (only in distance learning periods).
It is advisable to schedule this workload to deconflict with other activities.

The course spans a period of 11 weeks.

Date of access to the course e-learning platform: Week 7
Note that access to the course site will expire after six years.

On-campus periods: 30 March - 04 April 2020

Take-home assignment with approximately 14 days to write a paper.
The paper is graded using the Danish 7-point scale (ECTS-scale).
An external examiner is appointed.

Dress code during on-campus activities: Battle dress uniform (DNK “MTS”). Civilians wear casual attire.

Related courses
Cyberspace Operations Officer and Liaison (COOL).
SAP ID: D-object not yet created. Contact Lt. Cdr. Henrik Palbo, fak-imt-07, for information.

Cyber – Executive Development Graduate Experience (C-EDGE)
SAP ID: D-object 04042038

International Cyber Education (ICE).
SAP ID: D-object 04042035.

TGR 900 – IT Sikkerhedsbrugerkursus.
SAP ID: D-object 03195703.
Sidst opdateret 07-11-2019 - kl. 12:59

Uddannelsesskitse efterår 2017

Date of publication

26. september 2019 

Target group

Military officers at NATO OF-2 (DNK M321) level or NATO OF-3 (DNK M331) level, or an equivalent civilian level.


Minimum 12
Maximum 24

Level of Education

Level 7 (Master) cf. qualification framework for lifelong learning




11 weeks part-time 


For MMS-studens:  Via the Event Management System.
Apply here

Date of application

06. December 2019


Employees under the Ministry of Defence: Free.
Others: 7.000 DKK.


Royal Danish Defence College, Svanemoellen Barracks, Ryvangs Allé 1, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE


Course Organiser
CIV Jeppe T. Jacobsen
Institute for Military TEchnology
Royal Danish Defence College
E-mail: jaja@fak.dk
Fiin: fak-imt-06
Tel.: +45 4010 1434

Study Supervisor 
Cdr. Claus Smith Rasmussen
Royal Danish Defense College.
E-mail: clra@fak.dk
Tlf.: +45 728  17062

Programme Office
Sr. Sascha Hedberg
E-mail: studiekontor@fak.dk
FIIN: fak-ls-sas11
Tlf.: +45 728 17082